- Pocket veto: 10 day period falls when Congress is out of session and he doesn't sign the bill
- Veto: When he doesn't sign the bill. Can be overturned by a supermajority in both houses
- Cabinet: Can hire/fire at will. Senate confirms.
- Heads of Agencies and Departments: Can hire/fire at will.
- Federal Courts: When there are vacancies, President appoints people to federal bench for life/good behavior. Majority approval of Senate required.
- Force of law unless contradictory to the Constitution
- For emergencies because: Congress isn't always in session and doesn't always act fast enough
- Can be overturned/ignored by new President
- Can be overturned by courts
- Examples: Emancipation Procl.
Power through regulation
- Can order Executive Branch agencies to institute certain regulations
- Regulations fill in places where laws are silent: Law says "Make clean air." EPA writes and enforces the regulations to do so.
- Details of laws
- Most Presidentes simply sign and write, "Nice bill, good for the country."
- President Bush started signing bills and in his signing statements writing, "I know Congress passed this, but I am not going to enforce the following sections...."
- Poses an interesting Constitutional question because it is like a line-item veto/like creating law excet there is no initiative power (cannot initiate creation of laws).
- New President can overturn prior signing messages